2014 - 2015

  Methodology of Climatic Planning                                                                     
Prof. Oded PotchterYad Avner - Geography115Mon1800-2000 Sem  1
University credit hours:  2.0

Course description

Syllabus Methodology of Environmental and Related Climatic Planning



Instructor: Dr. Oded Potchter



Course Objectives: To understand the links between environment, climatic factors, urban form and the outdoor/indoor microclimate and how they can be influenced by appropriate design strategies.



Description: The aim of the course is to study how to integrate climatic factors and environmental elements in the planning process, starting from national planning, continuing at the regional, the settlement and residential neighborhood level and down to the level of house design. The course will show how climatic and environmental elements can be used as a renewable energy sources in order to improve climatic quality in the living environment and a reduction in the use of conventional energy. In addition, the course will present a methodology, strategy and tools for the implementation of climatic and environmental planning in different climatic regions.



Topical Outline:


1.            Introduction: environmental damage, waste of energy and increasing of human stress due to ignoring environmental and climatic factors. Definition of the climatic quality, the role of climatic planning.


2.            The impact of climatic parameters on planning and building: the process of climatic planning, typology of climatic planning in different climate zones.


3.            Climatic stress and human comfort:  Thermal comfort, heat stress, cold stress, indices for assessing human thermal sensation. 


4.            The history of climatic planning: vernacular architecture in different climatic zones, The concept of environmental and climatic planning in the classical world, Greek and Roman solar architecture.


5.            Integrating of climatic planning in state level: Geo-climatic mapping, strategies of climatic planning, criteria for buildings heating and cooling.


6.            Regional climatic planning: topo-climatology, location of land uses, settlements sites selection, mitigation of environmental hazards.


7.            Urban climate: factors that governing the urban climate, urban heat island, urban wind field, urban air pollution.  


8.            Urban climatic planning: the impact of climate on urban land uses, urban form and morphology, urban heat mitigation.


9.            Climate and buildings design: passive methods for cooling and heating, solar houses, ventilation, underground building.


10.        Urban greening and forestry: the use of vegetation for climate mitigation, urban parks and gardens, street trees and open spaces.


11.        Climatic planning in arid zones:  Nabatean, Roman and Byzantine buildings in the Negev, Oasis in the Middle East , IDF desert base, Neva Zin neighborhood.


12.         Climatic planning – theory and practices:  analysis of climatic planning in the reality, explanation for successes and failures.      




Course Requirements: Students will be required to attend at least 80% of lectures. Students will participate in final exam






Bitan, A., (1992), The High Climatic Quality City of the Future, Atmospheric Environment, 26B(3) 313-329.


Bitan, A., Potchter, O., (1995), Theory and Methodology of Climatic Planning and Its Application in the City of Bet-shemesh, Town Planning Review, 66(1): 61-81.


Bowler DE, Buyung-Ali L, Knight TM, Pullin AS. (2010). Urban greening to cool towns and cities: a systematic review of the empirical evidence. Landscape Urban Plan. 97: 147-55.


Cohen P., Potchter O., Matzarakis A., (2012). Daily and Seasonal Climatic Behavior of Green Urban Open Spaces in the Mediterranean Climate and its Impact on Human Comfort. Building and Environmen 51: 285-295.


Cohen P., Potchter O., Matzarakis A., (2013), Human thermal perception of Coastal Mediterranean outdoor urban environments. Applied Geography 37: 1-10


De Ridder, K., Adamec, V., Banuelos, Aet al., (2004), An Integrated Methodology to Assess the Benefits of Urban Green Park, Science of the Total Environment, 334-335: 489-497.


Givoni, B., (1982), Man, Climate and Architecture, Applied Science Publishers, New York .


Givoni, B., (1998) Climatic consideration in planning and building, New-York: John Wiley & Sons.


Golani, G. (1978). Urban Planning for Arid Zones. New-York: John Wiley & Sons.


Golani, G., (1996) Ethic and urban design culture, form and environment, New-York: John Wiley & Sons.


Griffiths , J.T. (1978). Applied Climatology. Oxford: Oxford University Press


Eliason I. , (2000), The use of climatic knowledge in urban planning, Landscape and Urban Planning 48: 31-44.


Erell, E., Pearlmutter, D. and Williamson, T. (2010) Urban Microclimate –


Designing the Space Between Buildings, Earthscan, London .


Evans, M. (1980). Housing Climate and Comfort. New-York: John Wiley & Sons.


Fang C.F., Ling, D.L., 2005. Guidance for noise reduction provided by tree belts,


      Landscape and Urban Planning 71: 29–34


Lechner, N. (1991). Heating, Cooling, Lighting, Design Methods for Architects. New-York: John Wiley & Sons.


Lam, K.C., NG, S.L., Hui, W.C., Chan, P.K., 2005, Environmental Quality of Urban Parks and Open Spaces in Hong Kong , Environmental Monitoring & Assesment, 111: 55-73.


Lin, T. P., & Matzarakis, A. (2008). Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun


Moon Lake, Taiwan . International Journal of Biometeorology, 52, 281-290.


Lin, T.P. (2009). Thermal perception, adaptation and attendance in a public square in hot and humid regions. Building and Environment 44(10), 2017–2026.


Oke, T.R., (1984), Towards a prescription for greater use of climatic principles in settlement planning, Energy and buildigs, 7:1-10.


Oke, T.R. (1987). Boundary Layer Planning. London : Methuen & Co LTD.


Ratti, C., Raydan, D. & Steemers, K. (2003), Building form and environmental


performance: archtypes, analysis and an arid climate, Energy and Buildings, 35, pp. 49-59.


Potchter, O., (1991), Climatic Aspects in the Building of Ancient Urban Settlements in the Land of        Israel , Energy and Buildings, 15-16: 93-104.


Potchter, O., Choen, P., Bitam, A., (2006). Climatic Behavior of Various Urban Parks during Hot and Humid Summer Mediterranean City of Tel Aviv, Israel International Journal of Climatology, 26:1695-1711. DOI: 10.1002/joc.1330


Santamouris, M. (Ed.) (2005) Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environment,


James & James, London , 402p


Shashua-bar, L., Potchter, O., Bitan, A., Bolanski, D., Yaakov, Y., (2010). Micro-climate modeling of street tree species within the varied urban morphology in the Mediterranean city of Tel Aviv , International Journal of Climatology, 30: 44–57 DOI: 10.1002/joc.1869


Shashua-Bar, L., Pearlmutter, D., Erell, E., (2009), The cooling efficiency of urban landscape strategies in a hot dry climate, Landscape and Urban Planning, 3-4:179-186


Thompson R.D. & Perry A. (1997). Applied Climatology. London : Routledge. 


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