This is the first part of the compulsory course "Introduction to the History of the Theatre" for 1st year students. In the chapter on Ancient Greece we shall study the fundamentals of dramatic writing and theatrical performance as they were initially defined during the 5th century BC in Athens. We will define the characteristics of the theatrical event in its socio-political and cultural context and follow the development of the Greek Theater structure and the conditions for the productions of plays in it. In the chapter on Ancient Rome, we will investigate the changes in the place of theater in Roman culture, learn about local pre-dramatic genres, discuss the manner in which the Roman drama emerged through a dialogue with the Greek model, and follow the changes in the physical structure of the theater and its performative conditions. During the course and exercise we will read selected tragedies and comedies by Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Menandros, Plautus, Terence and Seneca, and analyze their dramatic techniques, their performative language and their poetic and aesthetic conventions.