The nineteenth century in Latin America is a period of rebirth. The colonial order which had been established by Spain and Portugal, and which had been in place for three hundred years, collapses. From the debris, some new political, social, cultural and ideational forms begin to emerge and develop. The course traces these processes as well as their major scholarly interpretations, examining concrete historical cases and real human beings of flesh and blood. Main topics: The independence struggles; “the age of caudillos”; Brazil’s special path—monarchy and slavery; the confrontation between liberals and conservatives at mid-century; the reintegration of the region into the Atlantic economy and the material modernization during the last third of the century; the dominant intellectual and political climate of “order and progress” at the end of the period, its opponents, and initial demise.